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Walking is a great way to improve or maintain your overall health. Just 30 minutes every day can increase cardiovascular fitness, strengthen bones, reduce excess body fat, and boost muscle power and endurance. It can also reduce your risk of developing conditions such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and some cancers. Unlike some other forms of exercise, walking is free and doesn’t require any special equipment or training.

Physical activity does not have to be vigorous or done for long periods in order to improve your health. A 2007 study of inactive women found that even a low level of exercise – around 75 minutes per week – improved their fitness levels significantly, when compared to a non-exercising group.

Walking is low impact, requires minimal equipment, can be done at any time of day and can be performed at your own pace. You can get out and walk without worrying about the risks associated with some more vigorous forms of exercise. Walking is also a great form of physical activity for people who are overweight, elderly, or who haven’t exercised in a long time.

Walking for fun and fitness isn’t limited to strolling by yourself around local neighbourhood streets. There are various clubs, venues and strategies you can use to make walking an enjoyable and social part of your lifestyle.

Health benefits of walking

You carry your own body weight when you walk. This is known as weight-bearing exercise. Some of the benefits include: – increased cardiovascular and pulmonary (heart and lung) fitness – reduced risk of heart disease and stroke – improved management of conditions such as hypertension (high blood pressure), high cholesterol, joint and muscular pain or stiffness, and diabetes stronger bones and improved balance – increased muscle strength and endurance – reduced body fat.

Walking for 30 minutes a day

To get the health benefits, try to walk for at least 30 minutes as briskly as you can on most days of the week. ‘Brisk’ means that you can still talk but not sing, and you may be puffing slightly. Moderate activities such as walking pose little health risk but, if you have a medical condition, check with your doctor before starting any new exercise program of physical activity.

Building physical activity into your life

If it’s too difficult to walk for 30 minutes at one time, do regular small bouts (10 minutes) three times per day and gradually build up to longer sessions. However, if your goal is to lose weight, you will need to do physical activity for longer than 30 minutes each day. You can still achieve this by starting with smaller bouts of activity throughout the day and increasing these as your fitness improves.

Physical activity built into a daily lifestyle plan is also one of the most effective ways to assist with weight loss and keep weight off once it’s lost.

Some suggestions to build walking into your daily routine include: Take the stairs instead of the lift (for at least part of the way). Get off public transport one stop earlier and walk to work or home. Walk (don’t drive) to the local shops. Walk the dog (or your neighbour’s dog). Back to top Make walking part of your routine

Try to make walking a routine – for example, try to walk at the same time each day. Remember, you use the same amount of energy, no matter what time of day you walk, so do what is most convenient for you. You may find that asking someone to walk with you will help make it a regular activity. Some people find that keeping an activity diary or log also makes it easier.

Wearing a pedometer while walking

A pedometer measures the number of steps you take. You can use it to measure your movement throughout a day and compare it to other days or to recommended amounts. This may motivate you to move more. The recommended number of steps accumulated per day to achieve health benefits is 10,000 steps or more.

A comfortable intensity for walking

For most people, there is little difference in the amount of energy used by walking a kilometre or running a kilometre – it’s just that walking takes longer. Plan to cover a set distance each day and monitor how long it takes you to walk this distance. As your fitness improves, you will be able to walk a longer distance and use more energy.

Walking fast burns more kilojoules per hour than walking slowly, but this doesn’t mean you have to push yourself until you’re breathless. Instead, pace yourself so that you can still talk. This simple rule of thumb means that you walk safely within your target heart rate, which brings about health gains.

Our bodies tend to get used to physical activity, so continue to increase your intensity as you are able to improve your fitness levels. You can increase the intensity of your walks by: walking up hills walking with hand weights increasing your walking speed gradually by including some quick walking increasing the distance you walk quickly before returning to a moderate walking pace walking for longer.

Warming up and cooling down after walking

The best way to warm up is to walk slowly. Start off each walk at a leisurely pace to give your muscles time to warm up, and then pick up the speed. Afterwards, gently stretch your leg muscles – particularly your calves and front and back thighs. Stretches should be held for about 20 seconds. If you feel any pain, ease off the stretch. Don’t bounce or jolt, or you could overstretch muscle tissue and cause microscopic tears, which lead to muscle stiffness and tenderness.

It’s best to dress lightly when you do physical activity. Dressing too warmly can increase sweating and build up body temperature, which can make you uncomfortable during a walk or possibly cause skin irritations. A gradual cool-down will also prevent muscular stiffness and injury.


The success of a national tax on sugary drinks implemented in Mexico presents a strong case for policymakers around the world to adopt similar strategies, researchers say.

The introduction of an 8 cents per litre levy on all non-dairy and non-alcoholic beverages with added sugar has been found to motivate people to swap soft drinks for water since its introduction on 1 January 2014.

The findings, published in the BMJ, come as the global anti-sugar movement appears to be gaining momentum.

Updated national Dietary Guidelines for Americans released on Thursday recommend specific limits on sugar consumption for the first time.

In line with WHO guidelines released in 2015, the US guidelines now recommend that added sugars represent no more than 10% of energy intake per day.

Mexico, which had the biggest per capita consumption of sugary drinks in the world in 2011 (163L per person), decided to introduce the controversial tax to help combat skyrocketing rates of obesity and diabetes.

During the first year of its implementation, sugary drink consumption was found to drop by about 4.2L per person, equating to seven fewer 600mL bottles per person over the 12-month period.

At the same time, consumption of non-sugary drinks, particularly bottled water, rose by about 13L per person over the one-year period.

Countering arguments that the tax is regressive, reductions in sugary drink intake were found to be most substantial among low socioeconomic groups.

The results were based on data from more than 6000 households in 53 Mexican cities.

In an accompanying editorial, international health economist Dr Franco Sassi said the results were not surprising but were “of the greatest importance” for other governments looking to cut down sugar intake.

“The single most valuable contribution taxes can make to a public health strategy is the signal they give consumers … that a government is concerned about the harms associated with unhealthy diets and is serious about tackling them,” wrote Dr Sassi, who is head of the OECD public health program based in France.

“This is the strongest incentive for consumers to reconsider choices often made automatically, based on habits or environmental influences, and for players in the food supply chain to reorient their production towards healthier options.”

Australian dietary guidelines released in 2013 recommend cutting out added sugars, although no exact limits are set.

The Australian Government has not flagged any plans to tax sugar, but a recent Newspoll survey found that more than eight in 10 Australians would support a tax on sugary drinks if the revenue was spent tackling childhood obesity.


This is a family oriented general practice which has been operating in the Weston Creek area for almost forty years. The doctors here particularly enjoy the ongoing relationship we form with people. It is our belief that a strong doctor/patient relationship based on mutual respect, trust and a caring attitude is paramount for a family GP to be truly effective. It is not only important for your comfort and peace of mind but it is also important to the doctors who attend you.

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